Phoenician land was placed in actual Lebanon and was composed by state-cities. The most outstanding were Biblos, Beritos, Sidon and Tyre. Its expansion was due to the search of merchandises to trade with -glass, purple materials, metals and manufactured goods-. Phoenicians settled in Sicily, north of Africa, and Iberian Peninsula.
Scholars set a precolonization from 12th century to 8th b.C. Then Phoenicians lived their higher prosperity.
About year 1.100 b.C., Phoenician city of Tyre founded Gadir -Cadiz- and later, at 814 b.C. Carthage. Therefore Carthaginians come from Phoenician culture and tradition. They took little by little the control of the whole occidental Phoenician area between 6th and 3rd Centuries b.C.
Two areas can be clearly stablished: the western, dependant on Cadiz -"Gadir" means walled city- and the eastern one, with a capital where nowadays Granada and Malaga are set. There they founded Malaca -Malaga-, Sexi -Almunecar- and Abdera -Adra-.
Architectural remains are scarce, since later civilizations set their constructions over Phoenician ones. Actually we do not know very much about the Phoenician Gadir.
Necropolises associated to these cities are also an important architectural sample of Phoenician world. The most outstandings are:
Later colonization of Carthaginians, with a Phoenician origin, can also be seen as a conquest, because -though there were economic and commercial purposes in it- it was taken in a military way. Cities were both military centers and commercial ports for Mediterranean control. In this way they founded Cartagena -Carthago Nova- and colonized old Ibiza -Eivissa-.
An allusion to historical conquest of Sagunto -a city allied with Rome- by Hannibal in 218 b.C must be done. It provoked the Second Punic War. Presence of Carthaginians was a fact between 6th Century b.C., until their defeat in Second Punic War agaisnt Romans in 3rd Century b.C.
We can stand out as archeological remains from this age: